Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A 2013 cross-sectional study pending publication in the Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology showed that whole blood viscosity was strongly and independently associated with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, a marker used to detect early development of arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis. The study, involving 2,032 patients, showed that low-shear viscosity (3 s-1) demonstrated a strong and significant relationship with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity following adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors. The authors, Yu et al. stated, "Early detection of abnormal whole blood viscosity levels at low shear rate should warrant for early search of undetected arterial stiffness in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease."